Friday, June 10, 2011

Mazda: new technologies Skyactiv engine G-Sky

Mazda reveals new details of the technology package SkyActiv intended to increase performance by reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. So far, in fact, the house had only spoken on the surface of these technical improvements, suggesting that they were only related to the engine. But now the Nissan begins to discover some paper, revealing some very interesting detail.

Skyactiv covers engine, transmission and platform (including body and frame): the innovations will be adopted throughout the range of the manufacturer from the next generation of models being launched in 2012. The target is to reduce the fuel consumption of Mazda to 30% below the levels reached in 2008, with a 23% reduction in CO2 emissions.

Mazda is convinced that in the next decade, the mobility will be ensured primarily by internal combustion engines. Why is it worth to invest and look again in this direction. For the manufacturer the introduction of electronic media will be gradual and will go hand in hand with the mass distribution and the physiological cost savings for homes and the end customer.

For the moment, so the house has identified radical evolution of the basic technologies of the combustion engine, the most logical step to follow in the coming years. Reducing the weight of the vehicle and the improvement of the friction in the drive train are therefore two factors on which SkyActiv.

Entering the specific technologies used on internal combustion engines, Mazda announced that petrol ones Sky-G, are characterized by a very high compression ratio of 14:1. A direction other than that they are going to many car manufacturers, committed to reducing the displacement compensating for the loss of power and torque by pushing more air into the combustion chambers through turbocharging.

Increasing the compression ratio in a gasoline engine, it increases the thermal efficiency, thus improving fuel economy. However, the high compression combustion in conventional engines lead to an undesirable anomaly, known as knocking, and the consequent reduction in terms of torque. To avoid the beat uses a mixture richer and a retarded ignition timing, but these are at the expense of fuel economy and torque.

The knock occurs when the mixture ignites prematurely because the temperature and pressure are too high. This can be countered by reducing the amount and pressure of hot gas remaining in the combustion chamber. Mazda has therefore developed a special exhaust manifold, type 4-2-1, being a relatively long time, prevents the exhaust gases, which have just been evacuated from the cylinder, are pushed back inside the combustion chamber.

The resulting reduction in temperature prevents the pulse compression. The duration of combustion is reduced. A faster burning shortens the time when the air / fuel mixture remains unburned exposed to high temperatures, allowing the normal combustion comes to an end before he can experience the pulse.

Therefore, the new engine is also equipped with special pistons cables, allowing the flame front to propagate the initial (or grow) without interference, and new injectors multihole, which improve the characteristics of fuel vaporization. Together with the exhaust manifold of type 4-2-1, these innovations lead to a significant increase in torque, 15% and fuel economy.

To improve the efficiency of the engine, it is also necessary to reduce "pumping losses" which occur at lower engine loads when the piston draws air as it moves downward during the intake stroke. Typically, the amount of air entering the cylinder is controlled by the throttle valve located upstream of the intake duct.

At lower engine loads, you need only a small amount of air. The butterfly valve is almost closed, so that the pressure inside the intake manifold and cylinder is lower than atmospheric pressure. As a result, the piston must overcome a great void. This is precisely known as pumping loss and adversely affects the efficiency.

Mazda has taken steps to minimize this phenomenon through an S-VT (variable valve timing) on the continuously variable intake and exhaust. The S-VT changes the timing of opening and closing of the valves, allowing the amount of intake air is controlled by valves instead of the throttle.

During the intake stroke, the throttle valve and the intake valves are held open while the cylinder moves downward. The intake stroke ends when the piston reaches the bottom of the cylinder (bottom dead center).

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